Complete WAEC Syllabus for Agricultural Science 2023, Text Books, and Topics

The WAEC syllabus for Agricultural Science tells you what you need to learn to pass the test. It has the Agricultural Science exam’s goals and objectives, as well as notes and the way the exam is set up.

You need to study the Agricultural Science syllabus if you want to do well on the test. It will help you figure out what you want to read about. There are also notes on important ideas that you should learn.

If you don’t use the Agricultural Science syllabus to study for an exam, it’s like going to a farm without your farming tools. You won’t be able to get anything done.

Make sure you start studying for the test using the syllabus.

This post has the West African Examination Council’s Agricultural Science course outline and suggested books (WAEC). If you have any questions, let me know in the comments.

WAEC Agricultural Science


This curriculum is meant to show that Agricultural Science is an applied science, with a focus on learning the knowledge and skills that go along with it.

It is likely that the Junior Secondary School Agricultural Science curriculum will be looked at in general.

Candidates will have to answer questions about everything listed in the column labeled “syllabus.”

The notes are meant to give you an idea of how broad the questions will be, but they shouldn’t be taken as a complete list of limitations and examples.

Every school that teaches Agriculture must:

I Set up a farm where you can grow crops;

(ii) Keep at least one ruminant species and one non-ruminant species;

(iii) If possible, build a fish pond.

Candidates should have practical notebooks with records of what they did in the lab, on field trips, and at school farms. They should also have records of what they found when they collected samples.

Continuous assessment of candidates is recommended to make teaching and learning more effective and to help candidates do better in their jobs.

Since the main goals of the Senior Secondary School Agricultural Science Curriculum are to:

stimulate and sustain students’ interest in agriculture;
allow students to learn useful skills and knowledge that will prepare them for further study and work in agriculture;
It is suggested that visits to well-known government and private experimental and commercial farms, agricultural research institutes, and other places related to agriculture be added to the study of Agricultural Science in Senior Secondary School.

Examination Scheme

There will be three tests: Papers 1, 2, and 3 must all be passed. Papers 1 and 2 will be combined into one paper that will be taken all at once.

PAPER 1: You’ll have 50 minutes to answer 50 multiple-choice questions for 50 marks.

PAPER 2: There will be six essay questions, and each one will be based on at least two themes from the course outline.

For 90 points, candidates will need to answer five questions in 2 hours and 10 minutes.

PAPER 3: For school candidates, it will be a practical paper. For private candidates, it will be an alternative to a practical paper.

It will have four questions, and you will get 60 points for answering all of them in 1 1/2 hours.

WAEC Syllabus for Agricultural Science

Simple Ideas
What agriculture means and why it’s important
What is agricultural science, and what are its different parts?
How agriculture helps people, communities, and the country as a whole.
Problems with agricultural growth and ways to fix them
Having to do with:
land tenure;
simple comforts;
facilities for storage and processing;
education and training in agriculture;
tools and equipment;
farm goods;
marketing system;
environmental degradation.
Possible answers to the problems we’ve seen
What subsistence agriculture means and how it differs from commercial agriculture
What do subsistence agriculture and commercial agriculture mean?
Differences between farming for survival and farming for profit based on their traits.
There are pros and cons to both subsistence farming and commercial farming.
Problems with farming for subsistence and farming for profit.
What the government does to help agriculture grow
Agricultural finance:
Agricultural education
Agricultural extension services.
Agricultural policies and programmes
Non-government organizations and the development of agriculture
What non-government organizations are and what they do (NGOs).
What NGOs do to help improve agriculture.
Laws and changes in agriculture
West Africa has different ways of owning land.
West Africa has laws about how land can be used.
What are the pros and cons of the West African Land Use Act (Decree) and reforms?
Agricultural Ecology
What agricultural ecology means and why it’s important
Ecosystem and agricultural ecology mean the same thing.
Farm ecosystem parts, such as living and nonliving
How the parts of the terrestrial and aquatic agroecosystems work together.
How land is used
What land means.
Land is a free gift from nature, can’t be moved, is limited in supply, etc.
How land is used:
agricultural purposes:
production of crops;
animal protection/game reserve;
livestock production etc.
non-agricultural purposes:
transport etc.
Things that affect how much land is available for farming
The way things look:
soil type;
land degradation;
soil pollution.
Things in the economy:
population pressure;
growth of businesses;
mining/extraction of minerals;
Socio-cultural factors:
land tenure system;
religious reason (church, mosque, shrine, etc.), etc.
Agro-related industries and the relationship between farming and business
Raw materials and industries based on agriculture:
Pulp wood for the paper business;
The cocoa, tea, and other drink industries;
Cotton in the textile business;
Soap business: oil, seeds, etc.
How agriculture and industries work together:
Farming is a market for industrial products like farm equipment and chemicals.
The food that industrial workers eat comes from agriculture.
The distribution and production of crops and animals are affected by the environment.
Things like rain, temperature, light, wind, and relative humidity are examples of climatic factors.
Biotic factors, such as predators, parasites, soil microorganisms, pests, pathogens, and weeds; interactions, such as competition, parasitism, and mutualism; (symbiosis).
Aspects of the land:
soil pH, soil texture, soil structure, soil type etc.
A group of rocks
Kinds of rocks:
The ways that rocks are made.
Soil formation and topography growth
Factors of soil formation: the parent rock, organisms, climate, topography and time.
What happens to make soil:
physical weathering;
Chemical changes.
Soil profile development.
Soil types, make-up, and properties
Kinds of dirt.
The soil’s chemical and biological make-up:
soil macro and micro nutrients;
soil water;
soil macro-organisms;
soil microbes;
soil air.
Soil pH.
Physical properties of soil:
soil texture;
soil structure;
Plant nutrients and nutrient cycle
Macro and micro nutrients; their functions and deficiency symptoms in crops.
Factors affecting availability of nutrients in soil such as pH, excess of other nutrients, leaching, crop removal, oxidation and burning.
Methods of replenishing lost nutrients, e.g. crop rotation, organic manuring, fertilizer application, fallowing, liming, cover-cropping.
Nitrogen, carbon, water and phosphorus cycles.
Organic agriculture – meaning and importance.
Meaning of irrigation system.
Types of irrigation systems:
overhead e.g. sprinkler;

surface e.g. flooding, furrow/channel, basin, border;
underground e.g. perforated pipes, drips.
Advantages and disadvantages of irrigation systems.
Importance of irrigation.
Problems associated with irrigation.
Meaning of drainage.
Importance of drainage.
Types of drainage systems:
surface drainage e.g. channel, furrow;
subsurface/underground drainage.
Advantages and disadvantages of drainage systems.
Agricultural pollution
Meaning of agricultural pollution.
Causes/sources of pollution of agricultural lands and fish ponds:
excessive application of agricultural chemicals;
marine and oil spillage;
livestock waste and dung disposal etc.
Effects of land/pond pollution on farmers and agricultural productivity.
Agricultural Engineering/Mechanization
Simple farm tools
Meaning of simple farm tools.

Types of simple farm tools cutlass, hoe, spade, shovel etc.
General maintenance of simple farm tools.
Farm machinery and implements
Farm machinery:
milking machines;
combine harvester etc.
Tractor-coupled implements:
sprayers etc.
Maintenance practices and precautionary measures
Reasons for maintaining farm machines.
Maintenance of farm machinery:
check water and oil levels regularly;

carry out routine service;
keep machines clean etc.
Agricultural mechanization
Meaning of agricultural mechanization.
Mechanized agricultural operations.
Advantages and disadvantages of agricultural mechanization.
Limitations of agricultural mechanization.
Prospects of agricultural mechanization
Farm power
Sources of farm power.
Advantages and disadvantages of different sources of farm power.
Farm surveying
Meaning of farm surveying.
Common survey equipment.
Uses of farm survey equipment.
Maintenance of farm survey equipment.
Importance of farm surveying.
Farm planning
Meaning of farm planning.
Factors to be considered in farm planning.
Importance of farm planning.
Principles of farmstead planning
Meaning of farmstead.

Importance of farmstead planning.
Factors to be considered in the design of a farmstead.
Farmstead layout.
Crop Production
Classification of crops
Classification of crops based on their uses e.g. cereals, pulses, roots and tubers, vegetables.
Classification based on their life cycle e.g. annual, biennial, perennial, ephemeral.
Classification based on their morphology e.g. monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous crops.
Husbandry of selected crops:- botanical names and common names of the crop, varieties/types, climatic and soil requirements, land preparation, methods of propagation, planting date, seed rate, spacing, sowing depth and nursery requirements, cultural practices: supplying, thinning,
manuring and fertilizer requirement and application, weeding, pests and disease control, harvesting, processing and storage of at least one representative crop from each of the following crop groupings:
Cereals e.g. maize, rice, guinea corn, millet;
Pulses (grain legumes) e.g.
cowpea, soya bean, pigeon pea.
Roots and tubers e.g. cassava, yam, potatoes;
Vegetables e.g. tomatoes, onion, amaranthus, okro, cauliflower, spinach;
Fruits e.g. citrus, banana, pineapple;
Beverages e.g. cocoa, tea, coffee;
Spices e.g. pepper, ginger;
Oils e.g. groundnut, sheabutter, sunflower, oil palm;
Fibres e.g. cotton, jute, sissal hemp;
Latex e.g. rubber;
Others – sugar cane etc.
Pasture and forage crops
Meaning of pasture and forage crops.

Uses of forage crops.
Types of pasture.
Common grasses and legumes used for grazing livestock.
Factors affecting the distribution and productivity of pasture.
Establishment of pasture.
Management practices of pasture.
Crop improvement
Aims of crop improvement.
Methods/processes of crop improvement e.g. introduction, selection, breeding.
Mendel’s laws of inheritance.
Advantages and disadvantages of crop improvement.
Forest management
Meaning of forest and forestry.
Importance of forestry.
Forest regulations.
Forest management practices.
Implications of deforestation.
Agro-forestry practices in West Africa
Meaning of agro-forestry.
Agro-forestry practices:
taungya system;
alley cropping;
ley farming etc.
Ornamental Plants
Meaning and importance of ornamental plants
Meaning of ornamental plants.
Importance of ornamental plants.
Common types of ornamental plants
Types of ornamental plants according to their uses:
bedding plants (mostly flowering plants);
hedging plants;
lawn grasses etc.
Examples of ornamental plants.
Settings and location for planting ornamental plants.
Methods of cultivating ornamental plants:
(i) by seed;
(ii) vegetative propagation.
Maintenance of ornamental plants.
Crop Protection
Diseases of crops
Meaning of disease
General effects of diseases on crop production.
Disease: causal organism, economic importance, mode of transmission, symptoms, prevention and control measures of the diseases of the following crops:
cereals – smut, rice blast, leaf rust etc;
legumes – cercospora leaf spot, rosette etc;
beverages – cocoa blackpod, swollen shoot, coffee leaf rust etc;
tubers – cassava mosaic, bacterial leaf blight etc;
fruits- citrus gummosis, dieback etc
fibre – black arm/bacterial blight of cotton etc;
vegetables – root knot of tomato or okro, damping off, onion twister etc;

stored produce – mould etc.
Pests of crops
Meaning of pests.
Classification of pests:
non-insect pests.
Classification of insect-pests based on mouth parts with examples:
biting and chewing;
piercing and sucking;
Important insect-pests of major crops; field and storage pests, life cycle, economic importance, nature of damage, preventive and control measures of the following major insect-pests of crops:
cereals – stem borer, army worm, ear worm etc;
legumes – pod borer, aphids, sucking bugs and leaf beetle;
beverages – cocoa myrids (capsids);
tubers – yam beetle, cassava mealybugs, green spidermites, variegated grasshopper;
fibre – cotton stainer, bollworms;
fruits and vegetables – thrips, grasshopper, leaf roller, leaf beetle, scale insect;
stored produce – grain weevils, bean beetle.
Non-insect pests e.g. birds, rodents etc.
Side effects of preventive and control methods:
chemical – pollution, poisoning;
biological – disruption of the ecosystem etc;
cultural – harmful effects of burning etc.
General effects/economic importance of pests.
Meaning of weeds.
Types of weeds.
Effects of weeds on crops and economy.
Characteristic features of weeds.
Methods of controlling weeds: cultural, biological, chemical, physical and mechanical methods.
Animal Production
Types and classification of farm animals
Types of farm animals: cattle, sheep, goat, poultry, pig, rabbit, fish etc.
Classification of farm animals according to:
habitat – terrestrial and aquatic.
uses – food, protection, pet etc.
Anatomy and physiology of farm animals
Parts of farm animals.
Organs of farm animals e.g. heart, liver, lungs.
Systems of farm animals e.g. digestive system, circulatory system, respiratory system

Animal reproduction
Meaning of reproduction.
(b) Roles of hormones in reproduction of farm animals.
(c) Reproductive systems of farm animals.
(d) Processes of reproduction in farm animals.
(e) Egg formation in poultry.
Environmental physiology
Meaning of environmental
Effects of changes in climatic factors such as:
relative humidity; and
light on: growth, reproduction, milk production, egg production etc.
Livestock management
Meaning of livestock management.
Requirements for livestock management: housing; feeding; hygiene and finishing of at least one ruminant and one non-ruminant from birth to market weight.
Importance of management practices.
Animal nutrition
Meaning of animal nutrition.
Classification of feeds.
Sources and functions of feed nutrients.
Types of ration/diet and their uses; components of a balanced diet, production and maintenance rations.
Causes and symptoms of malnutrition and their correction in farm animals.
Rangeland and pasture management
Meaning and importance of rangeland/pasture to livestock and the characteristics of range land.
Common grasses and legumes in rangeland.
Factors affecting the level of production of herbage; rainfall, grass/legume composition, grazing etc.
Methods of rangeland and pasture improvement:
controlled stocking, rotational grazing, use of fertilizers, introduction of legumes, reseeding, weed control, burning, pest and disease control.
Animal improvement
Meaning of animal improvement.
Aims of animal improvement.
Methods of animal improvement:
Artificial insemination.
meaning of artificial insemination.
methods of collecting semen.
advantages and disadvantages of artificial insemination.
Animal health management
Meaning of disease.
Causal organisms: viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa.
Factors that could predispose animals to diseases: health status of animals, nutrition, management etc.

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Reaction of animals to diseases: susceptibility and resistance to diseases.
Causal organisms, symptoms, mode of transmission, effects, prevention and control of the following selected livestock diseases:
viral-foot and mouth, rinderpest, newcastle;
bacterial – anthrax, brucellosis, tuberculosis;
fungal – aspergillosis, ringworm, scabies;
protozoa – trypanosomiasis, coccidiosis.
meaning of parasite.
types of parasites.
mode of transmission, life cycle, economic importance and control of the following selected livestock parasites:
endoparasites – tapeworm, liverfluke and roundworm;
ectoparasites – ticks, lice.
General methods of prevention and control of diseases and parasites: quarantine, inoculation/immunization, hygiene, breeding for resistance etc.
Meaning of aquaculture.
Different types of aquaculture:
fish farming;
shrimp farming;
crab farming.
Meaning and importance of fish farming.
Conditions necessary for siting a fish pond.
Establishment and maintenance of fish pond.
Fishery regulations – meaning and regulations.
Fishing methods and tools.
Apiculture or bee keeping
Meaning of apiculture or bee keeping.
Types of bees:
indigenous bees;
exotic bees.
Importance of bee keeping.
Methods of bee keeping:
traditional method;
modern bee keeping.
Bee keeping equipment: bee hives, hive tools like suits, smokers, jungle boots, brushes etc.
Precautionary measures in bee keeping:
locate apiaries far from human dwellings;
put warning symbols near apiary etc.
Agricultural Economics and Extension
Basic economic principles:
scale of preference;
law of diminishing returns.
Factors of production:
labour – characteristics and classification;
management or entrepreneur.
Principles of demand
Definition of demand.
Law of demand.
Factors affecting demand for agricultural produce.
Movements along the demand curve.

Shifts in the demand curve.
Principles of supply
Definition of supply.
Law of supply.
Movements along supply curve.
Shifts in the supply curve.
Factors affecting the supply of agricultural produce.
Implications of demand and supply for agricultural production
Price support.
Price control.
Subsidy programme and its effects on agricultural production.
Functions of a farm manager
Meaning of a farm manager.
Functions of a farm manager.
Problems faced by farm managers
Agricultural finance
Meaning of agricultural finance.
Importance of agricultural finance
Sources of farm finance.
Classes of farm credit:
classification based on length of time: short-term credit; medium term credit; long-term credit.
classification based on source of credit:
institutional credit;
non-institutional credit.
(i) classification based on liquidity:
loan in-cash; – loan in-kind.
Problems faced by farmers in procuring agricultural credit.
high interest rate;
lack or inadequate collateral etc.
Problems faced by institutions in granting loans to farmers:
lack of records and accounts etc.
Capital market.
meaning of capital market, institutions that deal with medium and long term loans for agricultural business.
institutions involved in the capital market
sources of funds for the capital market:
insurance companies;
merchant banks;
the stock exchange (sales and purchases of shares).
roles of capital markets in agricultural business:
mobilization of long term funds for on-lending;
reduce over reliance on money market etc.
Farm records and accounts
Importance of farm records.
Types of farm records:
inventory records;
production records;
income and expenditure records;
supplementary or special records.
Designing farm records
Farm Accounts
expenditure/ purchases account;

income/sales account;
profit and loss account;
balance sheet.
Marketing of agricultural produce
Meaning and importance of marketing of agricultural produce.
Marketing agents and their functions.
Marketing functions:
processing etc.
Marketing of export crops.
Export crops in West Africa.
Guidelines for exporting crops in West Africa.
Corporate bodies, cooperative societies and individuals engaged in exporting agricultural produce e.g ANCE – Association of Nigerian Cooperative Exporters.
Importance of exporting agricultural produce.
Problems of marketing agricultural produce .
Agricultural insurance
Meaning of agricultural insurance.
Importance of agricultural insurance.
Types of insurance policies for agricultural production:
specific enterprise insurance e.g. crop insurance, livestock insurance;
farm vehicle insurance;
fire disaster insurance or machines and buildings insurance;
life assurance (farmers, farm workers and farmers’ household).
Insurance premium
Problems of agricultural insurance:
uncertainties of weather;
losses due to natural disaster etc.
Agricultural extension
Meaning and importance of agricultural extension
Agricultural extension methods:
individual contact methods;
group contact methods etc.
Agricultural extension programmes in West Africa e.g ADP, NDE, Agro-service centres, state ministries of agriculture and natural resources
Problems of agricultural extension in West Africa. e.g. illiteracy among farmers, inadequate transport facilities etc.
Practical Agricultural Science
Agricultural Ecology
Soil profile
Laboratory work on physical properties of soil.
Mechanical analysis by sedimentation and also by use of hydrometer method or sieves
Determination of bulk density and total pore space.
Determination of moisture content of a moist soil sample.
Determination of maximum water holding capacity.
Determination of wilting point.
Determination of capillary action.
Laboratory work on chemical properties of soil.
Determination of soil acidity using pH meter and/or any other gadget or simple equipment.

Common types of chemical fertilizers.
Organic manure:
green manure;
farm yard;
Irrigation and drainage
Agricultural Enginering/Mechanization
Farm tools and equipment
Tractor and animal drawn implement
Harvesting, processing and storage equipment.
Farm tractor
Uses and maintenance of horticultural tools and implements.
Livestock and fishing equipment
Farm surveying equipment
Crop Production
Seeds, seedlings, fruits and storage organs of crops.
Main pests and diseases of crops
Planting dates, seed rates, plant population and seed quality tests of the more common local crop plants.
Preparation of seedbeds, fertilizer application, mulching, use of pesticides , watering, vegetative propagation, germination tests etc.
Forest products and by-products.
Methods of propagation of horticultural plants.
Common weeds
Animal Production
Common breeds of animals and types of animals available in the locality.
Major internal organs of farm animals, e.g. organs of the digestive system, reproductive and excretory systems.
Animal by-products
Animal feeds and feed stuffs and their local sources.
Main pests and parasites of farm animals.
Diseases of farm animals.
Routine management practices in farm animals, e.g. selection of livestock and poultry for breeding, culling, ear-notching, tattooing, horn or skin branding, debeaking, dehorning, castration.
Fish harvesting and preservation.

WAEC Agricultural Science Textbooks

Here is the list of WAEC recommended textbooks for Agricultural Science;

Adeniyi, M. O. et al (1999) Countdown to Senior Secondary Certificate Examination Agricultural Science, Ibadan: Evans.
Akinsanmi, A. O. (2000) Junior Secondary Agricultural Science, Uk: Longman.

Akinsanmi, O. A. (2000) Senior Secondary Agricultural Science, Uk: Longman.
Anthonio, Q. B. O. (1999) General Agriculture for West Africa, London:George Allen
Are, L. al (2010) Comprehensive Certificate Agricultural Science for Senior Secondary School, University Press Plc.
Egbuna, C. K. et al (2014) Extension Modern Agricultural Science for Senior Secondary Schools (2010), Extension Publication
Emmanuel C. A. (2003) A Dictionary of Agriculture, Benue:Agitab Publisher Makurdi
Falusi, A. O. and Adeleye, I. O. A (2000) Agricultural Science for Junior Secondary SchoolsBooks 1- 3, Ibadan: Onibonoje
Komolafe, M. F., Adegbola, A. A., Are, L. A. and Ashaye, T. I. (2004) Agricultural Science for Senior Secondary Schools 1, 2 and 3,Ibadan: University Press Ltd.
Philips T. A. (1986) Agricultural Notebook, Lagos: Longman
STAN (1999) Agricultural Science for Senior Secondary Schools, Lagos: Longman

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